Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are popular and widely used “gastroprotectives”. More than 10% of our population is treated. In addition to classical indications such as gastroduodenal peptic disease or gastroesophageal reflux disease, they are indicated for the reduction of hemorrhagic complications in the digestive tract during antithrombotic treatment. The effect of PPIs on reducing upper gastrointestinal bleeding in antithrombotic treatment (rivaroxaban, acetylsalicylic acid or a combination) was called into question by a recently published randomised mega-study – COMPASS pantoprazole. Treatment of PPIs is accompanied by a number of significant drug interactions, in particular a severe reduction in the bioactivation of clopidogrel and a reduction in the absorption of acetylsalicylic acid or dabigatran. As a result, the effect of these antithrombotics is reduced. A number of observational studies – in the indication of PPIs in the treatment of gastroduodenal or gastrooesophageal disease or when used in the treatment of PPIs in antithrombotic treatment – found a greater incidence of major vascular events and an increase in mortality. So are PPIs effective in protecting gastrointestinal bleeding and are they safe?