Ischaemic optic neuropathy (ION) is a major cause of blindness. The clinical approach and management is a matter of debate for the treating neurologist and the ophthalmologist. Of the two broad varieties namely the posterior (PION) and anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (AION), the arteritic variety of the AION (AAION) is usually due to giant cell arteritis. Giant cell arteritis may only present with visual loss in up to 25% of cases. AAION is a neuro-ophthalmic emergency. Early recognition and differentiation from AAION is imperative in order to prevent further devastating visual loss. A literature search was conducted on pubmed using key words as AAION, arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy, giant cell arteritis (GCA) and articles from the year 2000 till date were included. In any case very few reviews are available on AAION. The literature search on pubmed provided holistic overview about this clinical significant entity and the same is compiled in this review. Moreover the histopathologic features of a temporal artery biopsy have been described with its microscopic images. In any case reviews are mostly available on the Non arteritic variety of AION. This review recapitulates the diagnostic and management protocol of a patient presenting with AAION.