Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are considered promising biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment efficacy of diseases. However, usefulness of circulating miRNAs as biomarkers for hereditary gastrointestinal diseases have not been confirmed yet. We explored circulating miRNAs specific for patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) as a representative hereditary gastrointestinal disease. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) indicated that plasma miR-143-3p, miR-183-5p, and miR-885-5p were candidate biomarkers for five FAP patients compared to three healthy donors due to moderate copy number and significant difference. MiR-16-5p was considered as an internal control due to minimum difference in expression across FAP patients and healthy donors. Validation studies by real-time PCR showed that mean ratios of maximum expression and minimum expression were 2.2 for miR-143-3p/miR-16-5p, 3.4 for miR-143-3p/miR-103a-3p, 5.1 for miR-183-5p/miR-16-5p, and 4.9 for miR-885-5p/miR-16-5p by using the samples collected at different time points of eight FAP patients. MiR-143-3p/16-5p was further assessed using specimens from 16 FAP patients and 7 healthy donors. MiR-143-3p was upregulated in FAP patients compared to healthy donors (P = 0.04), but not significantly influenced by clinicopathological features. However, miR-143-3p expression in colonic tumors was rare for upregulation, although there was a significant difference by existence of desmoid tumors. MiR-143-3p transfection significantly inhibited colorectal cancer cell proliferation compared to control microRNA transfection. Our data suggested regulation of miR-143-3p expression differed by samples (plasma or colonic tumors) in most FAP patients. Upregulation of plasma miR-143-3p expression may be helpful for diagnosis of FAP, although suppressive effect on tumorigenesis seemed insufficient in FAP patients.