Tooth demineralization is one of the most common intraoral diseases, encompassing (1) caries caused by acid-producing bacteria and (2) erosion induced by acid of non-bacterial origin from intrinsic sources (e.g. stomach acid reflux) and extrinsic sources (e.g. carbonated drinks). Current clinical assessment based on visual-tactile examination and standardized scoring systems is insufficient for early detection. A combination of clinical examination and technology is therefore increasingly adapted. This paper reviews various procedures and technologies that have been invented to diagnose and assess the severity of tooth demineralization, with focus on optical coherence tomography (OCT). As a micron-resolution non-invasive 3D imaging modality, variants of OCT are now available, offering many advantages under different working principles for detailed analytical assessment of tooth demineralization. The roles, capabilities and impact of OCT against other state-of-the-art technologies in both clinical and research settings are described. (139 words).
© 2022. The Author(s).