In the absence of universal screening for congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection, the aim of this study was to assess the outcomes of a targeted screening protocol based on maternal and neonatal risk indicators.
The medical records of 2,623 neonates born in our maternal hospital between June 2016 and December 2018 and screened for cCMV infection were reviewed. Among those of the included neonates, the records of 380 CMV-negative and 19 CMV-positive neonates were randomly assigned to obtain additional comparative data.
During the study period, a total of 63 neonates were identified as positive for cCMV, comprising 0.2% of the total birth cohort (63/28,982) and 2.4% of all neonates screened for cCMV (63/2,623). The comparative data analysis showed that suspected or confirmed CMV infection during pregnancy, maternal age, and maternal diabetes mellitus were found to be significantly associated with a positive cCMV diagnosis. Although symmetric small for gestational age and hearing screening failure contributed to the detection of some of the CMV-positive infants, these factors were not specific to this group. The results of the logistic regression model showed that the only factor that was significantly associated with an increased risk for a cCMV diagnosis was maternal serology suspected of CMV infection during pregnancy, with a regression coefficient estimate of 2.657 (adjusted p < 0.001).
A targeted neonatal screening protocol based on multiple maternal and neonatal risk indicators is feasible but provides limited information. Our study emphasizes the importance of universal neonatal screening for the detection of neonates with cCMV.

© 2020 S. Karger AG, Basel.