The ventricular arrhythmia (VA)-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) association and related risk factors remain unclear. Using 2001-2012 data from National Health Insurance Research Database, we retrospectively reviewed 71,838 patients diagnosed as having COPD and 71,838 age- and sex-matched controls. After adjustments for comorbidities, medication, urbanization level, and monthly income, patients with COPD had higher incidence rates of VA than did the controls (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] [95% confidence interval (CI)]: 1.45 [1.25-1.68]). More hospitalization or emergency visits because of acute COPD exacerbation (aHRs [95% CIs] for first, second, and third visits: 1.28 [1.08-1.50], 1.75 [1.32-2.32], and 1.88 [1.46-2.41], respectively) and asthma-COPD overlap (aHR [95% CI]: 1.49 [1.25-1.79]) were associated with high VA risk in patients with COPD. In the multivariate analysis, heart failure (aHR [95% CI]: 2.37 [1.79-3.14]), diabetes (aHR [95% CI]:1.64 [1.29-2.08]), age ≥75 (aHR [95% CI]: 2.48 [1.68-3.67]), male (aHR [95% CI]: 1.69[1.34-2.12]), and class III antiarrhythmic drug use (aHR [95% CI]: 2.49 [1.88-3.28]) are the most significant risk factors of new onset of VA in patients with COPD.