To evaluate post-transplantation graft functions noninvasively by using urine C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10) and metabolome analysis.
The 65 living-donor kidney-transplant recipients in our cohort underwent renal biopsy to investigate possible graft dysfunction. The patients were divided into 2 groups, according to pathology reports: chronic allograft dysfunction (CAD; n = 18) and antibody-mediated/humoral allograft rejection (AMR; n = 16). The control group was composed of renal transplant recipients with stable health (n = 33). We performed serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), cystatin C, urine protein, CXCL10, and metabolome analyses on specimens from the patients.
BUN, creatinine, cystatin C, urine protein, leucine + isoleucine, citrulline, and free/acetyl/propionyl carnitine levels were significantly higher in patients with CAD and AMR, compared with the control individuals. CXCL10 levels were significantly elevated in patients with AMR, compared with patients with CAD and controls. CXCL10 (AUC = 0.771) and cystatin C (AUC = 0.746) were significantly higher in the AMR group, compared with the CAD group (P<.02).
CXCL10 and metabolome analyzes are useful for evaluation of graft functions. Also, CXCL10 might be useful as a supplementary noninvasive screening test for diagnosis of allograft rejection.

© American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2021. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: