To assess the association between migraine and cryptogenic ischemic stroke (CIS) in young adults, with subgroup analyses stratified by sex and presence of patent foramen ovale (PFO).
We prospectively enrolled 347 consecutive patients aged 18-49 with a recent CIS and 347 age- and sex-matched (±5 years) stroke-free controls. Any migraine and migraine with (MA) and migraine without aura (MO) were identified by a screener, which we validated against a headache-neurologist. We used conditional logistic regression adjusting for age, education, hypertension, diabetes, waist-to-hip ratio, physical inactivity, current smoking, heavy drinking, and oral estrogen use to assess independent association between migraine and CIS. The effect of PFO on the association between migraine and CIS was analyzed with logistic regression in a subgroup investigated with transcranial Doppler bubble screen.
The screener performance was excellent (Cohen’s Kappa >0.75) in patients and controls. Compared with non-migraineurs, any migraine (odds ratio [OR] 2.48, 95% confidence interval 1.63-3.76) and MA (OR 3.50, 2.19-5.61) were associated with CIS, whereas MO was not. The association emerged both in women (OR 2.97 for any migraine, 1.61-5.47; OR 4.32 for MA, 2.16-8.65) and men (OR 2.47 for any migraine, 1.32-4.61; OR 3.61 for MA, 1.75-7.45). Specifically for MA, the association with CIS remained significant irrespective of PFO. MA prevalence increased with increasing magnitude of the right-to-left shunt in patients with PFO.
MA has a strong association with CIS in young patients, independent of vascular risk factors and presence of PFO. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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