Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) based on serum cystatin-C (sCys) seems as accurate as when based on serum creatinine (sCr), but sCys seems a better predictor of adverse outcomes. We aimed to study whether sCys could be a reliable tool for the prediction of adverse outcomes in elderly patients with severe chronic kidney disease (CKD).
A group of 348 elderly patients with non-end-stage CKD (stages 1-4, according to eGFR-EPI sCr and/or sCys), referred to our consultation unit during 2016, was retrospectively studied and divided into four exclusive categories: CKD_stage4_neither (eGFR-sCr≥30mL/min; eGFR-sCys≥30mL/min), CKD_stage4_sCr_only (eGFR-sCr<30mL/min), CKD_stage4_sCys_only (eGFR-sCys<30mL/min) and CKD_stage4_combined (eGFRsCr<30mL/min; eGFR-sCys<30mL/min). Baseline characteristics, predictors of death, and clinical events (cardiovascular events and admissions for cardiovascular, acute kidney injury or infectious events) were explored until December 2018.
A 77±7.4 year-old cohort, with a modified Charlson Comorbidty Index (mCCI) of 3 (IQR:1-4), was followed-up during 29 (IQR: 26-33) months. There were no significant differences between the characteristics of the stage 4 groups. Survival analysis was stratified by follow-up at 12 months, and in the first year, survival curves of CKD_stage4_sCys_only and CKD_stage4_combined groups were significantly lower than the other groups (p=0.028). Adjusting for age, sex, and mCCI, CKD_stage4_sCys_only, conversely to CKD_stage4_sCr_only, had higher rates of clinical events (p<0.05) than CKD_stage4_neither group.
In elderly patients with discordant CKD staging, sCys-based eGFR seems to be a better predictor of adverse outcomes than sCr-based eGFR. Patients with stage 4 CKD defined by sCr alone seem to behave similar to those with less severe CKD.