Psychiatric disorders and ocular neurovascular diseases may share a similar pathophysiological route of vascular structures or neurological changes. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between ocular neurovascular diseases and the risk of major psychiatric disorders.
This was a retrospective case-control, population-based study including patients aged ≥20 and were diagnosed between 1997 and 2013. Ocular neurovascular diseases diagnosed between 1997 and 2006 and newly diagnosed psychiatric disorders including bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and schizophrenia between 2007 and 2013 were registered. Patients were propensity-score matched with control groups without psychiatric disorders in each cohort based on selected covariates.
A total of one million sampled patients in the database were categorized based on their diagnoses; 2243 (37.4% men) were categorized into the BD group, 10,110 (35.2% men) into the MDD group, and 1623 (43.1% men) into the schizophrenia group. In the BD group, all glaucoma (OR 1.49, [1.18-1.89]), open-angle glaucoma (OR 2.08, [1.34-3.24]), and closed-angle glaucoma (OR 2.12, [1.36-3.33]) showed statistical significance of risk. In the MDD group, age-related macular degeneration (OR 1.33, [1.13-1.57]), all glaucoma (OR 1.24, [1.11-1.37]), open-angle glaucoma (OR 1.47, [1.21-1.80]), and dry eye syndrome (OR 1.22, [1.13-1.31]) were associated with a significantly higher risk. In the schizophrenia group, only all glaucoma (OR 1.47, [1.02-2.11]), glaucoma suspect (OR 1.88, [1.01-3.49]), and open-angle glaucoma (OR 2.19, [1.13-4.26]) showed statistical significance.
In this population-based study, ocular neurovascular diseases, especially glaucoma, were associated with increased risks of BD, MDD, and schizophrenia.