The aim of this study was to summarize the evidence on the association of phase angle (PhA) with muscle strength and aerobic fitness in different populations.
A systematic search on this topic was performed in nine electronic databases (CINAHL, LILACS, PubMed, SciELO, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, ScienceDirect, MEDLINE, and Web of Science) in January 2021. Studies with different designs that permitted extraction of information about the relationships between PhA and muscle strength and between PhA and aerobic fitness were included. A total of 4446 studies were initially identified; 34 were included after reading of the title, abstract, full text, and references. Four of the studies included had a longitudinal design, with samples consisting of participants ages 6 to 92 years. Thirty-two of the 34 studies evaluated the relationship between PhA and muscle strength, two cross-sectional studies investigated only PhA and aerobic fitness, and three cross-sectional studies evaluated both components (muscle strength and aerobic fitness).
PhA was directly associated with muscle strength in 30 cross-sectional studies and two longitudinal studies; the two studies that did not find a direct relationship had a cross-sectional design. For aerobic fitness, the five studies identified reported a direct relationship with PhA.
PhA is directly associated with muscle strength and aerobic fitness in different age groups (children, adolescents, adults, and older adults) and in people with different health conditions (human immunodeficiency virus, Crohn’s disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bariatric surgery, kidney transplant, cancer, hemodialysis, and sarcopenia).

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