Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by frequent episodes of partial or complete obstruction of the airway during sleep causing repeated episodes of apnea. OSA is more prevalent in middle-aged and older adults. OSA is associated with numerous ocular manifestations, including retinal manifestations. Literature highlighted the clear association between OSA and numerous ocular conditions including glaucoma and papilledema. This comprehensive and narrative review aims to summarize up-to-date clinical research concerning the association of OSA and vascular conditions that affect the retina. OSA is associated with the central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC), retinal vein occlusion (RVO), hypertensive retinopathy (HTRP) and development of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Sympathetic activation, hypoxia, and hormonal dysregulation all lead to serious retinal vascular conditions that will worsen OSA patients’ quality of life. It is important to refer patients with newly diagnosed OSA to an ophthalmology clinic for the appropriate test.
© 2021 Al Saeed et al.