Trimethylamine-N-Oxide (TMAO) is a microbiome-related metabolite that has been linked to cardiovascular and renal function. This study has reviewed and analyzed the relationship between TMAO and all-cause mortality and adverse cardiovascular events in the elderly subjects.
We determined whether this association was modified in the presence of CKD, heart failure and diabetes. Based on the criteria, systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted and performed.
A total of 27 prospective cohort studies were retrieved finally to examine the associations. The high TMAO was positively associated with all-cause mortality [HR: 1.38 (95% CI: 1.306 to 1.460)] as well as adverse cardiovascular events. [HR: 1.032 (95% CI: 1.014 to 1.051)]. The association remained upon subgroup analysis for patients with CKD and heart failure but no association for patients with diabetes [HR: 1.15 (95% CI, 0.81-1.64)].
The findings of this review revealed that the TMAO level is associated with all-cause mortality and adverse cardiovascular events.

The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.