The IMpower trials reported significant effects of atezolizumab-containing chemotherapies on Caucasian patients. Chinese patients differ from their Western counterparts in terms of driver mutations, etiologies, and regimen tolerance. In China, atezolizumab-containing chemotherapies are not cost-effective. Atezolizumab addition triggers grade >3 adverse events. Here, we evaluated the effectiveness and the safety profile of atezolizumab plus carboplatin and nab-paclitaxel compared to carboplatin and nab-paclitaxel in treatment-naïve Chinese patients with confirmed stage IV, non-squamous, non-small-cell lung cancer. All patients completed six cycles of 1200 mg of atezolizumab/3 weeks plus 6 mg/ml/min area-under-the-curve carboplatin/3 weeks plus 100 mg/m nab-paclitaxel/week (n = 115; ACN cohort) or 6 mg/ml/min area-under-the-curve carboplatin/3 weeks plus 100 mg/m nab-paclitaxel/week (n = 130; CNP cohort). The progression-free survival (12.98 ± 2.57 months vs. 10.89 ± 2.18 months, p < .0001) and overall survival (38.04 ± 19.8 months vs. 33.59 ± 87 months, p = .012) of patients in the ACN cohort were higher than those of patients in the CNP cohort after 48 weeks of follow-up. A total of 97 (84%) patients in the ACN cohort and 94 (72%) in the CNP cohort developed grade ≥3 adverse events (p = .030). A total of 84 (73%) patients from the ACN cohort and 107 (82%) from the CNP cohort died during 48 weeks of follow-up (p = .091). The addition of atezolizumab to carboplatin and nab-paclitaxel enhanced progression-free and overall survival but increased the risk of grade ≥3 adverse events in Chinese, treatment-naïve, stage IV, non-squamous, non-small-cell lung cancer patients who completed treatment (Level of Evidence: III; Technical Efficacy Stage: 4).© 2022 The Authors. Pharmacology Research & Perspectives published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd, British Pharmacological Society and American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.
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