Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia and is frequently present in patients with mitral regurgitation (MR). Currently, there is a lack of real-world evidence specifically addressing the clinical performance of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in patients with AF and concomitant MR. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy and safety profile of DOACs therapy in patients with AF and MR.
Data for this study were sourced from the Atrial Fibrillation Research Database in the Department of Cardiology at Monaldi Hospital. The database was queried for AF patients with MR who were prescribed DOACs therapy. The primary safety outcome was defined as the annual incidence rate of major bleeding events and the primary effectiveness outcome as the annual incidence rate of all events classified as ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attacks, and systemic embolisms.
Consecutive AF patients with concomitant mild to severe MR who received DOACs therapy (n = 259) were included. Patients were dichotomized in 2 groups according to MR severity: a mild-to-moderate group (MR 1-2+; n = 151) and a moderate-to-severe group (MR 3-4+; n = 108). The incidence rate of major bleedings was significantly higher in MR 3-4+ group (3.92%) compared with the MR 1-2+ group (1.18%; hazard ratio [HR]: 3.2; 95% CI: 1.4-7.3; = .0059). The incidence rate of thromboembolic events between MR 3-4+ group (0.66%) and MR 1-2+ group (0.62%) was not significantly different (HR: 0.75; = .823).
In the present study, there was no difference in the efficacy profile of DOACs between AF patients with mild-to-moderate and moderate-to-severe MR. Considering the increased bleeding risk, a close and careful follow-up should be warranted for patients with moderate-to-severe MR.

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