In this paper, we discuss how recent advancements in image processing and machine learning (ML) are shaping a new and exciting era for the osteoporosis imaging field. With this paper, we want to give the reader a basic exposure to the ML concepts that are necessary to build effective solutions for image processing and interpretation, while presenting an overview of the state of the art in the application of machine learning techniques for the assessment of bone structure, osteoporosis diagnosis, fracture detection, and risk prediction.
ML effort in the osteoporosis imaging field is largely characterized by “low-cost” bone quality estimation and osteoporosis diagnosis, fracture detection, and risk prediction, but also automatized and standardized large-scale data analysis and data-driven imaging biomarker discovery. Our effort is not intended to be a systematic review, but an opportunity to review key studies in the recent osteoporosis imaging research landscape with the ultimate goal of discussing specific design choices, giving the reader pointers to possible solutions of regression, segmentation, and classification tasks as well as discussing common mistakes.

© 2021. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.