There has been a great advance in the treatment of inguinal hernias with a significant reduction in recurrences with the use of polypropylene mesh. Local complications such as infections, rejection, and chronic pain are widely studied and reported in the literature. The Autoimmune [Auto-inflammatory] Syndrome Induced by Adjuvants (ASIA) is little known and can be triggered by using polypropylene mesh.
33-year-old female patient, married, and an administrative manager. History of smoking, previous breast surgery with silicone prosthesis, appendectomy. One year and four months ago, she underwent bilateral inguinal hernioplasty by laparoscopy. Shortly after the inguinal hernia surgery, systemic, urinary symptoms, and chronic local pain appeared. She reported low back pain, fatigue, memory loss, and mood swings associated with limiting pelvic pain, dysuria, and dyspareunia. We performed a robotic surgical procedure to remove the meshes bilaterally. Three days after surgery, the patient was discharged with adequate pain control, without the need for opioids. During outpatient follow-up, there was a significant improvement in symptoms, both local and systemic.
Local complications with the use of polypropylene mesh to repair inguinal hernias are well described in the literature, highlighting chronic postoperative pain that can affect 10-20% of patients. Recently, polypropylene prostheses have been found to act as adjuvants and may be the trigger for an exacerbated immune response adaptive to an autoantigen. Thus, being capable of causing an autoimmune disease variant of the Autoimmune [Auto-inflammatory] Syndrome Induced by Adjuvants (ASIA), described by Shoenfeld and Agmon-Levin in 2011.
In addition to local complications, systemic symptoms related to the use of polypropylene mesh can also occur. In the Autoimmune [Auto-inflammatory] Syndrome Induced by Adjuvants (ASIA), systemic symptoms, for being nonspecific, make diagnosis difficult and are often not attributed to the use of mesh.

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