Axonal variants of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) mainly include acute motor axonal neuropathy, acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy, and pharyngeal-cervical-brachial weakness. Molecular mimicry of human gangliosides by a pathogen’s lipooligosaccharides is a well-established mechanism for Campylobacter jejuni-associated GBS. New triggers of the axonal variants of GBS (axonal GBS), such as Zika virus, hepatitis viruses, intravenous administration of ganglioside, vaccination, and surgery, are being identified. However, the pathogenetic mechanisms of axonal GBS related to antecedent bacterial or viral infections other than Campylobacter jejuni remain unknown. Currently, autoantibody classification and serial electrophysiology are cardinal approaches to differentiate axonal GBS from the prototype of GBS, acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Newly developed technologies, including metabolite analysis, peripheral nerve ultrasound, and feature selection via artificial intelligence are facilitating more accurate diagnosis of axonal GBS. Nevertheless, some key issues, such as genetic susceptibilities, remain unanswered and moreover, current therapies bear limitations. Although several therapies have shown considerable benefits to experimental animals, randomized controlled trials are still needed to validate their efficacy.
COVID-19 pneumonia manifestations at the admission on chest ultrasound, radiographs, and CT: single-center study and comprehensive radiologic literature review.
April 15, 2020
January 14, 2021
February 10, 2020
- ACC 2020The American College of Cardiology decided to cancel ACC.20/WCC due to COVID-19, which was scheduled to take place March 28-30 in Chicago. However, ACC.20/WCC Virtual Meeting continues to release cutting edge science and practice changing updates for cardiovascular professionals on demand and free through June 2020.
- CROI 2020Every year, CROI hosts some of the world's leading experts in HIV research, who come to present exciting new data and drive forward the field of HIV/AIDS research. This year, due to COVID-19, CROI held their meeting virtually.