Studies have indicated that bacterial vaginosis (BV) might be a cofactor for the acquisition and persistence of high-risk papillomavirus, enabling the development of cytological abnormalities. The presence of endocervical and metaplastic cells makes the smear more adequate for the detection of these abnormalities once these cell types are representative of the transformation zone, a site of increased susceptibility to viral infection.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the patterns of vaginal microbiota, the representation of endocervical and/or metaplastic cells, and the detection of cytological abnormalities in cervical smears from women 15 to 64 years old. Results from satisfactory cytological smears performed in a laboratory school from the Federal University of Goiás were analyzed. The degree of association between the categorical variables was evaluated by the χ test, Fisher’s Exact test, and stratified analysis through the estimation of the prevalence ratio, with 95% confidence intervals and 5% statistical significance level (P < .05).
The global prevalence of BV and cytological abnormalities was 22.02% and 8.21%, respectively. BV and the representation of endocervical and/or metaplastic cells were independently associated with the detection of high-grade cytological abnormalities in the cervical smears of women between 25 and 64 years old.
BV and representation of endocervical and/or metaplastic cells were independently associated with the detection of high-grade cytological abnormalities reinforcing the importance of specimen adequacy and microbiota in the cervical microenvironment.

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