Baicalin has been widely investigated against different types of malignancies both at the cellular and molecular levels over the past few years. Due to its remarkable anti-proliferative potential in numerous cancer cell lines, it has created immense interest as a potential chemotherapeutic modality compared to other flavonoids. Thus, this review focuses on the recent accomplishments of baicalin and its limitations in cancer prevention and treatment. Further, combination studies and nanoformulations using baicalin to treat cancer along with the metabolism, bioavailability, toxicity, and pharmacokinetics have been discussed. The present review explains biological source, and anti-proliferative potential of baicalin against cancers including breast, colon, hepatic, leukemia, lung, and skin, as well as the relevant mechanism of action to modulate diverse signaling pathways including apoptosis, cell cycle, invasion, and migration, angiogenesis, and autophagy. The anticancer mechanism of baicalin in orthotropic and xenograft mice models have been deliberated. The combination studies of baicalin in novel therapies as chemotherapeutic adjuvants have also been summarized. The low bioavailability, fast metabolism, and poor solubility, and other significant factors that limit the clinical use of baicalin have been examined as a challenge. The improvement in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of baicalin with newer approaches and the gaps are highlighted, which could establish baicalin as an effective and safe compound for cancer treatment as well as help to translate its potential from bench to bedside.
Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier Ltd.