There are difficulties associated with mapping gunshot wound (GSW) patterns within opaque models. Depending on the damage measurement parameters required, there are multiple techniques that can provide methods of “seeing” the GSW pattern within an opaque model. The aim of this paper was to test several of these techniques within a cadaveric animal limb model to determine the most effective. The techniques of interest were flash X-ray, ultrasound, physical dissection, and computed-tomography (CT). Fallow deer hind limbs were chosen for the model with four limbs used for each technique tested. Quarantined 7.62 × 39 mm ammunition was used for each shot, and each limb was only shot once, on an outdoor range with shots impacting at muzzle velocity. Flash X-ray provided evidence of yaw within the limb during the projectile’s flight; ultrasound though able to visualise the GSW track, was too subjective and was abandoned; dissection proved too unreliable due to the tissue being cadaveric so also too subjective; and lastly, CT with contrast provided excellent imaging in multiple viewing planes and 3D image reconstruction; this allowed versatile measurement of the GSW pattern to collect dimensions of damage as required. Of the different techniques examined in this study, CT with contrast proved the most effective to allow precise GSW pattern analysis within a cadaveric animal limb model. These findings may be beneficial to others wishing to undertake further ballistic study both within clinical and forensic fields.
June 18, 2020
September 3, 2020
Mental health literacy of ADHD, autism, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder: a cross-cultural investigation.
January 30, 2020
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