Large intestine cancer is one of the most relevant chronic diseases taking place at present. Despite therapies have evolved very positively, this pathology is still under deep investigation. One of the recent approaches is the prevention by natural compounds such as pectin. In this paper, we have assessed the impact of citrus pectin and modified citrus pectin on colorectal cancer in rats (Rattus norvegicus F344) to which azoxymethane and DSS were supplied. The lowest intake of food and body weight were detected in animals fed with citrus pectin, together with an increase in the caecum weight, probably due to the viscosity, water retention capacity and bulking properties of pectin. The most striking feature was that, neither citrus pectin nor modified citrus pectin gave rise to a tumorigenesis prevention. Moreover, in both, more than 50% of rats with cancer died, probably ascribed to a severe dysbiosis state in the gut, as shown by the metabolism and metagenomics studies carried out. This was related to a decrease of pH in caecum lumen and increase in acetate and lactic acid levels together with the absence of propionic and butyric acids. A relevant increase in Proteobacteria (Enterobacteriaceae) were thought to be one of the reasons for enteric infection that could have provoked the death of rats and the lack of cancer prevention. However, a reduction of blood glucose and triacylglycerides level and an increase of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillaceae were found in animals that intake pectin, as compared to universal and modified citrus pectin feeding.Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.