Autoimmune diseases as antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) could cause many maternal complications. The most common maternal complications of autoimmune diseases are lupus flare, hypertension, nephritis, preeclampsia (PE), eclampsia, and poor pregnancy outcomes which including preterm delivery and pregnancy loss. Only the lupus anticoagulant in the greatest prospective multicenter study has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes of the APS.
This review aims to provide a comprehensive update for predictors in pregnant women with APS/SLE.
These data have been collected from clinical and pathological studies, systematic reviews, and meta-analysis.
In recent years the SLE and APS demonstrated to have different and valuable clinical and biomarker predictors for the pregnancy outcome. Treatment of pregnant women with APS is low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and aspirin; however, around 75% of this management is considered successful.
This review summarizes recent research that focuses on biochemical and clinical predictors of adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) of pregnant women with SLE and APS. Furthermore, we have collected more evidence that confirms the safety and efficacy of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) preventing APOs.

© 2021. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.