Aspirin desensitization followed by daily aspirin use is an effective treatment for aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD).
To assess clinical features as well as genetic, immune, cytological, and biochemical biomarkers that might predict a positive response to high-dose aspirin therapy in AERD.
We enrolled 34 AERD patients with severe asthma who underwent aspirin desensitization followed by 52-week aspirin treatment (650 mg/d). At baseline and at 52 weeks, clinical assessment was performed; phenotypes based on induced sputum cells were identified; eicosanoid, cytokine, and chemokine levels in induced sputum supernatant were determined; and induced sputum expression of 94 genes was assessed. Responders to high-dose aspirin were defined as patients with improvement in 5-item Asthma Control Questionnaire score, 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22) score, and forced expiratory volume in 1 second at 52 weeks.
There were 28 responders (82%). Positive baseline predictors of response included female sex (P=0.002), higher SNOT-22 score (P=0.03), higher blood eosinophil count (P=0.01), lower neutrophil percentage in induced sputum (P=0.003), higher expression of the hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase gene, HPGD (P=0.004), and lower expression of the proteoglycan 2 gene, PRG2 (P=0.01). The best prediction model included Asthma Control Test and SNOT-22 scores, blood eosinophils, and total serum immunoglobulin E. Responders showed a marked decrease in sputum eosinophils but no changes in eicosanoid levels.
Female sex, high blood eosinophil count, low sputum neutrophil percentage, severe nasal symptoms, high HPGD expression, and low PRG2 expression may predict a positive response to long-term high-dose aspirin therapy in patients with AERD.

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