The stroma is one of the 5 layers of the cornea that comprises more than 90% of the corneal thickness, and is the most important layer for the transparency of cornea and refractive function critical for vision. Any significant damage to this layer may lead to corneal blindness. Corneal blindness refers to loss of vision or blindness caused by corneal diseases or damage, which is the 4th most common cause of blindness worldwide. Different approaches are used to treat these patients. Severe corneal damage is traditionally treated by transplantation of a donor cornea or implantation of an artificial cornea. Other alternative approaches, such as cell/stem cell therapy, drug/gene delivery and tissue engineering, are currently promising in the regeneration of damaged cornea. The aim of tissue engineering is to functionally repair and regenerate damaged cornea using scaffolds with or without cells and growth factors. Among the different types of scaffolds, polymer-based scaffolds have shown great potential for corneal stromal regeneration. In this paper, the most recent findings of corneal stromal tissue engineering are reviewed.