Background The present study assessed the association between blood pressure (BP) and the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) according to gender and the use of antihypertensive drugs using data from a large-scale health checkup. Methods and Results We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the JMDC database, which contains annual health checkup data of Japanese employees and their dependents aged <75 years. We included 154 692 participants (men, 69.68%; mean age, 44.74 years) without CKD. CKD was indicated by an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min per 1.73 m or the presence of proteinuria. During the mean follow-up period of 4.78 years, new-onset CKD occurred in 14 888 participants. When the normal BP group (systolic/diastolic BP <120/<80 mm Hg) without treatment was used as a reference, the hazard ratios of the high BP (130-139/80-89 mm Hg) and grade 1 (140-159/90-99 mm Hg) and grade 2 or 3 hypertension (≥160/≥100 mm Hg) groups were 1.11 (95% CI, 1.06-1.17), 1.36 (95% CI, 1.28-1.45), and 1.76 (95% CI, 1.56-1.99) for untreated men, respectively. However, in treated men, even normal BP was associated with a 1.5-fold higher risk of CKD. The association between BP and the risk of CKD was weaker in untreated women than in untreated men. The risk of CKD in treated women with normal BP was similar to that of untreated women with normal BP. Conclusions Gender differences were found in the association between BP and CKD risk. Kidney function in treated individuals should be followed carefully, especially in men.