Obesity is an important risk factor in tumor development. Botryosphaeran, a (1 → 3)(1 → 6)-β-D-glucan, produced by the fungus Botryosphaeria rhodina (MAMB-05), is a high molecular mass, water-soluble exopolysaccharide. It consists of a main chain of (1 → 3)-linked β-d-glucose units, with a degree of branching of ~22% at carbon-6 with glucose and gentiobiose residues linked through β-(1 → 6)-bonds, and presents a triple helix conformation. Botryosphaeran presents anticlastogenic, antiproliferative, pro-apoptotic and anti-obesogenic activities. This study evaluated the effects of botryosphaeran on tumor development in obesity and analyzed its mechanism of action. Obesity was induced in male Wistar rats by a high-fat/high-sugar diet. After 9 weeks, rats were divided into two groups: Obese Tumor (OT) and Obese Tumor Botryosphaeran (OTB), and inoculated with 1 × 10 Walker-256 tumor cells, and treatment with botryosphaeran (30 mg/kg b.w./day via gavage for 15 days) commenced. On the 11th week, biological parameters, tumor development, metabolic profile, erythrogram and protein expression were evaluated. Botryosphaeran significantly reduced tumor growth, body-weight loss and cachexia. Furthermore, botryosphaeran decreased mesenteric fat and insulin resistance, corrected macrocytic anemia, and increased Forkhead transcription factor-3a (FOXO3a) activity. Our study demonstrated the potential role of botryosphaeran in the management of cancer in tumor-bearing obese rats by increasing insulin sensitivity and FOXO3a activity.Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.