Significant practice-changing developments have occurred in the care of heart transplantation candidates and recipients over the past decade. This Canadian Cardiovascular Society/Canadian Cardiac Transplant Network Position Statement provides evidence-based, expert panel recommendations with values and preferences, and practical tips on: (1) patient selection criteria; (2) selected patient populations; and (3) post transplantation surveillance. The recommendations were developed through systematic review of the literature and using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system. The evolving areas of importance addressed include transplant recipient age, frailty assessment, pulmonary hypertension evaluation, cannabis use, combined heart and other solid organ transplantation, adult congenital heart disease, cardiac amyloidosis, high sensitization, and post-transplantation management of antibodies to human leukocyte antigen, rejection, cardiac allograft vasculopathy, and long-term noncardiac care. Attention is also given to Canadian-specific management strategies including the prioritization of highly sensitized transplant candidates (status 4S) and heart organ allocation algorithms. The focus topics in this position statement highlight the increased complexity of patients who undergo evaluation for heart transplantation as well as improved patient selection, and advances in post-transplantation management and surveillance that have led to better long-term outcomes for heart transplant recipients.
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