Male infertility is a global health problem, and the underlying molecular mechanisms are not clearly known. Ion channels and microRNAs (miRNAs), known to function in many vital functions in cells, have been shown to play a significant role in male infertility through changes in their expressions. The study aimed to evaluate the alterations of testicular and/or spermatozoal potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily J member 11 (KCNJ11), Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), miR-let-7a and miR-27a expressions in carbamazepine-related male infertility. Here, we showed that carbamazepine reduced sperm motility, increased abnormal sperm morphology, and impaired hormonal balance as well as increased relative testis weight and decreased relative seminal vesicle weight. On the other hand, downregulated KCNJ11 and upregulated miR-let-7a expressions were determined in testis (p < .05). Also, downregulated KCNJ11 and upregulated CFTR and miR-27a expressions were found in spermatozoa (p < .05). Interestingly, altered testicular KCNJ11 and miR-let-7a expressions were correlated with decreased sperm motility and elevated sperm tail defect. Besides, spermatozoal CFTR and miR-27a expressions positively correlated with sperm tail defects. The results indicated a significant relationship between ion channel and/or miRNA expression alterations and impaired sperm parameters due to carbamazepine usage.
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