Autoimmune diseases (ADs) affect approximately 10% of the world’s population. Because ADs are frequently systemic disorders, cardiac involvement is common. In this review we focus on typical arrhythmias and their pathogenesis, arrhythmia-associated mortality, and possible treatment options among selected ADs (sarcoidosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, type 1 diabetes, Graves’ disease, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis [AS], psoriasis, celiac disease [CD], and inflammatory bowel disease [IBD]). Rhythm disorders have different underlying pathophysiologies; myocardial inflammation and fibrosis seem to be the most important factors. Inflammatory processes and oxidative stress lead to cardiomyocyte necrosis, with subsequent electrical and structural remodeling. Furthermore, chronic inflammation is the pathophysiological basis linking AD to autonomic dysfunction, including sympathetic overactivation and a decline in parasympathetic function. Autoantibody-mediated inhibitory effects of cellular events (i.e., potassium or L-type calcium currents, Mmuscarinic cholinergic or β-adrenergic receptor signaling) can also lead to cardiac arrhythmia. Drug-induced arrhythmias, caused, for example, by corticosteroids, methotrexate, chloroquine, are also observed among AD patients. The most common arrhythmia in most AD presentations is atrial arrhythmia (primarily atrial fibrillation), expect for sarcoidosis and scleroderma, which are characterized by a higher burden of ventricular arrhythmia. Arrhythmia-associated mortality is highest among patients with sarcoidosis and lowest among those with AS; there are scant data related to mortality in patients with psoriasis, CD, and IBD.
January 31, 2020
Perceptions, attitudes and training needs of primary healthcare professionals in identifying and managing frailty: a qualitative study.
November 2, 2020
- ACC 2020The American College of Cardiology decided to cancel ACC.20/WCC due to COVID-19, which was scheduled to take place March 28-30 in Chicago. However, ACC.20/WCC Virtual Meeting continues to release cutting edge science and practice changing updates for cardiovascular professionals on demand and free through June 2020.
- ENDO: 2020ENDO 2020 Annual Conference has been canceled due to COVID-19. Here are highlights of emerging data that has still been released. Keep an eye out for ENDO Online 2020, which will take place from June 8 to 22.