Hypothyroidism is a common endocrine disorder resulting from deficiency of thyroid hormone, with iodine deficiency remains the foremost cause. It is more common in women with increasing incidence in the elderly. The manifestations of hypothyroidism results from the hypometabolism in the body at cellular level and affects all organs. Although there can be an incidental diagnosis of the disorder, the presentation with cardiac signs and symptoms is rare. We report a case of primary hypothyroidism with dysmorphic features manifesting as massive pericardial effusion with cardiac tamponade at presentation.
A female aged 20 years presented with lethargy, constipation, and dyspnoea of 6 months duration. On examination, she was short-statured and had dysmorphic features with hypotension, raised jugular venous pressure (JVP), muffled heart sounds, and thyroid stimulating hormone >100 uIU/mL. Chest X-ray showed cardiomegaly and 2DEcho confirmed cardiac tamponade for which emergency pericardiocentesis was done.
Cardiovascular manifestations in hypothyroidism are dyspnoea and decreased exercise tolerance. Bradycardia, diastolic hypertension, cardiomegaly, and non-pitting or pitting peripheral oedema may be seen on physical examination. Mild pericardial effusion is common and generally asymptomatic. Massive pericardial effusion being manifested at presentation primarily as a sign of hypothyroidism is rare. A few cases have been mentioned in the literature in India and western population. Rarely, hypothyroidism presents with massive pericardial effusion resulting in cardiac tamponade as in our case.
© The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.