The development, growth, and function of the cardiac, pulmonary, and vascular systems are closely intertwined during both fetal and postnatal life. In utero, placental, environmental, and genetic insults may contribute to abnormal pulmonary alveolarization and vascularization that increase susceptibility to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants. However, the shared milieu of stressors may also contribute to abnormal cardiac or vascular development in the fetus and neonate, leading to the potential for cardiovascular dysfunction. Further, cardiac or pulmonary maladaptation can potentiate dysfunction in the other organ, amplify the risk for BPD in the neonate, and increase the trajectory for overall neonatal morbidity. Beyond infancy, there is an increased risk for systemic and pulmonary vascular disease including hypertension, as well as potential cardiac dysfunction, particularly within the right ventricle. This review will focus on the cardiovascular antecedents of BPD in the fetus, cardiovascular consequences of preterm birth in the neonate including associations with BPD, and cardiovascular impact of prematurity and BPD throughout the lifespan.
© 2021 Wiley Periodicals LLC.