Care for the organ transplant recipient on the intensive care unit.
All transplant recipients receive tacrolimus, mycophenolate and glucocorticoids and these drugs have many side-effects and drug-drug interactions. Common complications include surgical complications, infections, rejection and acute kidney injury. Infections as CMV and PJP can be prevented with prophylactic treatment. Given the complexity of organ transplant recipients a multi-disciplinary team of intensivists, surgeons, pharmacists and transplant specialists is essential. After heart transplantation a temporary pacemaker is required until the conduction system recovers. Stiffening of the heart and increased cardiac markers indicate rejection. An endomyocardial biopsy is performed via the right jugular vein, necessitating its preservation. For lung transplant patients, early intervention for aspiration is warranted to prevent chronic rejection. Risk of any infection is high, requiring active surveillance and intensive treatment, mainly of fungal infections. The liver is immunotolerant requiring lower immunosuppression. Transplantation surgery is often accompanied by massive blood loss and coagulopathy. Other complications include portal vein or hepatic artery thrombosis and biliary leakage or stenosis. Kidney transplant recipients have a high risk of cardiovascular disease and posttransplant anemia should be treated liberally. After postmortal transplantation, delayed graft function is common and dialysis is continued. Ureteral anastomosis complications can be diagnosed with ultrasound.Copyright © 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.