Carnosine research in relation to aging brain and neurodegeneration: A blessing for geriatrics and their neuronal disorders.
Carnosine, an endogenous dipeptide (β-Ala-l-His), is enriched in prefrontal cortex and olfactory bulb of the brain, blood and also in muscle. It has mainly antioxidant and antiglycating properties which makes this molecule unique. Its content reduces during aging and aging-induced neurodegenerative diseases. Aging is a progressive biological process that leads to develop the risk factors of diseases and death. During aging the morphological, biochemical, cellular and molecular changes occur in brain and blood including other tissues. The objective of this review is to combine the updated information from the existing literature about the aging-induced neurodegeneration and carnosine research to meet the lacuna of mechanism of carnosine. The grey matter and white matter loses its normal ratio in aging, and hence the brain volume and weight. Different aging related neurodegenerative disorders arise due to loss of neurons, and synapses as a result of proteinopathies in some cases. Carnosine, being an endogenous biomolecule and having antioxidant, antiglycating properties has shown its potency to counteract erroneous protein biosynthesis, stress, activated microglial and astrocyte activity, and different neurodegenerative disorders. It (carnosine) can also inhibit the metal ion-induced degeneration by acting as a metal chelator. In this review the trends in carnosine research in relation to aging brain and neurodegeneration have been discussed with a view to its (carnosine) eligibility (including its mechanism of action) to be used as a promising neurotherapeutic for the betterment of elderly populations of our society at the national and international levels in near future.Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.