Obesity, lipodystrophy, diabetes, and hypertension collectively constitute the main features of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), together with insulin resistance (IR), which is considered as a defining element. MetS generally leads to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is a determinant cause of mortality and morbidity in humans and animals. Therefore, it is essential to implement and put in place adequate management strategies for the treatment of this disease. Catestatin is a bioactive peptide with 21 amino acids, which is derived through cleaving of the prohormone chromogranin A (CHGA/CgA) that is co-released with catecholamines from secretory vesicles and, which is responsible for hepatic/plasma lipids and insulin levels regulation, improves insulin sensitivity, reduces hypertension and attenuates obesity in murine models. In humans, there were few published studies, which showed that low levels of catestatin are significant risk factors for hypertension in adult patients. These accumulating evidence documents clearly that catestatin peptide (CST) is linked to inflammatory and metabolic syndrome diseases and can be a novel regulator of insulin and lipid levels, blood pressure, and cardiac function. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the CST effects in metabolic syndrome given its role in metabolic regulation and thus, provide new insights into the use of CST as a diagnostic marker and therapeutic target.
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