CCL4, a CC chemokine, previously known as macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1β, has diverse effects on various types of immune and nonimmune cells by the virtue of its interaction with its specific receptor, CCR5, in collaboration with related but distinct CC chemokines such as CCL3 and CCL5, which can also bind CCR5. Several lines of evidence indicate that CCL4 can promote tumor development and progression by recruiting regulatory T cells and pro-tumorigenic macrophages, and acting on other resident cells present in the tumor microenvironment, such as fibroblasts and endothelial cells, to facilitate their pro-tumorigenic capacities. These observations suggest the potential efficacy of CCR5 antagonists for cancer treatment. On the contrary, under some situations, CCL4 can enhance tumor immunity by recruiting cytolytic lymphocytes and macrophages with phagocytic ability. Thus, presently, the clinical application of CCR5 antagonists warrants more detailed analysis of the role of CCL4 and other CCR5-binding chemokines in the tumor microenvironment.
Donation of discarded ocular tissue in patients undergoing SMILE laser refractive surgery: developing appropriate guidelines.
July 27, 2020
How to diagnose heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: the HFA-PEFF diagnostic algorithm: a consensus recommendation from the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC).
March 9, 2020
- ACC 2020The American College of Cardiology decided to cancel ACC.20/WCC due to COVID-19, which was scheduled to take place March 28-30 in Chicago. However, ACC.20/WCC Virtual Meeting continues to release cutting edge science and practice changing updates for cardiovascular professionals on demand and free through June 2020.
- CROI 2020Every year, CROI hosts some of the world's leading experts in HIV research, who come to present exciting new data and drive forward the field of HIV/AIDS research. This year, due to COVID-19, CROI held their meeting virtually.