The use of tumor mutation-derived neoantigen represents a promising approach for cancer vaccines. Preclinical and early phase human clinical studies have shown the successful induction of tumor neoepitope-directed responses; however, overall clinical efficacy of neoantigen vaccines has been limited. One major obstacle of this strategy is the prevailing lack of sufficient understanding of the mechanism underlying the generation of neoantigen-specific CD8 T cells. Here, we report a correlation between antitumor efficacy of neoantigen/toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3)/CD40 agonists vaccination and an increased frequency of circulating antigen-specific CD8 T cells expressing CX3C chemokine receptor 1 (CX3CR1) in a preclinical model. Mechanistic studies using mixed bone marrow chimeras identified that CD40 and CD80/86, but not CD70 signaling in Batf3-dependent conventional type 1 dendritic cells (cDC1s) is required for the antitumor efficacy of neoantigen vaccine and generation of neoantigen-specific CX3CR1 CD8 T cells. Although CX3CR1 CD8 T cells exhibited robust in vitro effector function, in vivo depletion of this subset did not alter the antitumor efficacy of neoantigen/TLR3/CD40 agonists vaccination. These findings indicate that the vaccine-primed CX3CR1 subset is dispensable for antitumor CD8 T cell responses, but can be used as a blood-based T-cell biomarker for effective priming of CD8 T cells as post-differentiated T cells. Taken together, our results reveal a critical role of CD40 and CD80/86 signaling in cDC1s in antitumor efficacy of neoantigen-based therapeutic vaccines, and implicate the potential utility of CX3CR1 as a circulating predictive T-cell biomarker in vaccine therapy.