A systematic literature review was undertaken to evaluate real-world use of ceftazidime-avibactam for infections due to aerobic Gram-negative organisms in adults with limited treatment options.
Literature searches retrieved peer-reviewed publications and abstracts from major international infectious disease congresses from January 2015 to February 2021. Results were screened using pre-defined criteria to limit the dataset to relevant publications (notable exclusions were paediatric data and outcomes data for bacteria intrinsically resistant to ceftazidime-avibactam). Data for included publications were subjected to qualitative synthesis.
Seventy-three relevant publications (62 peer-reviewed articles; 10 abstracts) comprising 1926 patients treated with ceftazidime-avibactam (either alone or combined with other antimicrobials) and 1114 comparator/control patients were identified. All patients were hospitalised for serious illness and most had multiple comorbidities. The most common infections were pneumonia, bacteraemia, and skin/soft tissue, urinary tract, or abdominal infections; smaller numbers of patients with meningitis, febrile neutropenia, osteomyelitis, and cystic fibrosis were also included. Carbapenem-resistant or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (CRE; n = 1718) and carbapenem-resistant, multidrug-resistant (MDR), and extensively drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 150) were the most common pathogens. Most publications reported positive outcomes for ceftazidime-avibactam treatment (clinical success rates ranged from 45 to 100% and reported 30-day mortality from 0 to 63%), which were statistically superior versus comparators in some studies. ceftazidime-avibactam resistance emergence occurred infrequently and mostly in Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae strains.
This review provides qualitative evidence of successful use of ceftazidime-avibactam for the treatment of hospitalised patients with CRE and MDR P. aeruginosa infections with limited treatment options.

© 2021. The Author(s).