We describe a case of a 48 years old male with left sided endocarditis and septic emboli secondary to a Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain that developed resistance to other β-lactam antibiotics during therapy resulting in prolonged bacteremia. Blood cultures sterilized within 1 day of initiating ceftolozane/tazobactam 3 g every 8 hours in combination with ciprofloxacin. Steady state free ceftolozane plasma Cmax and Cmin concentrations were calculated to be 122.2μg/mL and 24.3μg/mL, respectively. The multidrug-resistant strain harbored chromosomal β-lactamases OXA-486 and PDC-3, mutations in ampD and dacB predicted to lead to ampC over-expression, and mutations in OprD predicted to decrease outer membrane permeability. Following completion of a 42 day course and aortic valve replacement, the patient was deemed clinically cured without recurrence of infection at follow up 2 years later. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case to measure ceftolozane concentrations during the treatment of endocarditis which supports dose optimization approaches of severe endovascular disease due to multidrug resistant pathogens.
Copyright © 2021 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.