This study investigated the characteristics of corneal higher-order aberrations (HOAs) of the anterior surface, posterior surface, and total cornea in adolescents with mild to moderate myopia.
A total of 183 patients with myopia (183 eyes) aged 8 to 18 years were enrolled in this study. The axial length (AL) of the eyes was measured by an IOL-Master, and corneal curvatures (K-values) and HOAs were measured by a Pentacam anterior segment diagnostic analyzer.
Results of this study showed that the anterior, posterior and total corneal horizontal coma Z were - 0.1249 ± 0.105 μm, 0.0009 ± 0.001 μm, and - 0.1331 ± 0.116 μm, respectively; the anterior, posterior and total corneal vertical coma Z were - 0.0212 ± 0.164 μm, 0.0003 ± 0.043 μm, and - 0.0216 ± 0.168 μm, respectively; and spherical aberration (SA) Z values were 0.2244 ± 0.091 μm, 0.1437 ± 0.029 um, and 0.1889 ± 0.090 μm, respectively. Total corneal Z was statistically correlated with posterior corneal astigmatism (Kb - Kb) (p = 0.038). Total corneal Z was correlated with anterior corneal astigmatism (Kf - Kf) (p = 0.027). Anterior, posterior, and total corneal Z were correlated with anterior and posterior corneal curvature (Kf, Kf, Kb, Kb) (p = 0.001). Posterior corneal Zb was also significantly correlated with AL.
In adolescents with mild to moderate myopia, the posterior corneal surface shape may play a compensatory role in the balance of corneal aberrations, and the posterior corneal SA tended to become less negative as the AL increased. The corneal coma may also play a compensatory role in posterior corneal surface astigmatism, which was valuable for the treatment for improving visual quality. This conclusion still needs to be verified.