This study aimed to investigate the clinical predictors of post-ictal headache (PIH) in patients with epilepsy in a tertiary center in Brazil.
302 individuals with adult-onset epilepsy were followed for 9.8 years in our Hospital. Structured questionnaires about headaches were applied. The presence of PIH was the primary outcome. We used multilevel linear modeling in our data analysis.
From the total, 46.3% had post-ictal headaches. Tension-type post-ictal headache was present in 55% (N = 77) of the subjects, migrainous in 32.1% (N = 45), and both types in 12.8% (N = 18). Family history of migraine (Odds ratio: 1.696; 95% CI: 1.372 to 2.096), diagnosis of drug-resistant epilepsy (Odds ratio: 1.169; 95% CI: 1.135 to 2.146), months since last visit (Odds ratio: 1.464; 95% CI: 1.243 to 2.888), and generalized seizure onset type of epilepsy (Odds ratio: 1.527; 95% CI: 1.114 to 1.668), were significant determinants of PIH on multilevel linear modeling.
PIH are associated with drug-resistant epilepsy, generalized seizures, and family history of migraine. The rates of pos-ictal headaches could be influenced by the use of antiepileptic drugs.

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