The choriocapillaris is the innermost structure of the choroid that directly nourishes the retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptors. This article provides an overview of its hemovasculogenesis development to achieve its final architecture as a lobular vasculature, and also summarizes the current histological and molecular knowledge about choriocapillaris and its dysfunction. After describing the existing state-of-the-art tools to image the choriocapillaris, we report the findings in the choriocapillaris encountered in the most frequent retinochoroidal diseases including vascular diseases, inflammatory diseases, myopia, pachychoroid disease spectrum disorders, and glaucoma. The final section focuses on the development of imaging technology to optimize visualization of the choriocapillaris as well as current treatments of retinochoroidal disorders that specifically target the choriocapillaris. We conclude the article with pertinent unanswered questions and future directions in research for the choriocapillaris.
Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Ltd.