To analyze the clinical manifestations and laboratory features in patients with myeloid neoplasms complicated with clonal T large granular lymphocyte (T-LGL) proliferation. The clinical data of 5 patients with myeloid neoplasms complicated with clonal T-LGL proliferation from November 2017 to November 2018 in Institute of Hematology & Blood Diseases Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College were analyzed retrospectively. The median age was 60 years old. All patients had a history of abnormal peripheral blood cell counts for over 6 months. The absolute lymphocyte count in peripheral blood was less than 1.0×10(9)/L. In addition to the typical T-LGL phenotype, the immunophenotype was heterogenous including CD4(+)CD8(-) in 2 patients, the other 3 CD4(-)CD8(+). Four patients were αβ type T cells, the other one was γδ type. STAT3 mutation was detected in 1 patient by next-generation sequencing, the other 4 cases were negative. Clonal T-LGL proliferation with myeloid neoplasm develops in an indolent manner, mainly in elderly patients. Hemocytopenia is the most common manifestation. The diagnosis of T-LGL proliferation does not have specific criteria, that it should be differentiated from other T cell proliferative disorders, such as T-cell clones of undetermined significance. STAT3 or STAT5b mutation may help distinguish.

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