An accurate interpretation of the ABO blood group of an individual is of utmost importance to ensure patient safety and good transfusion practices. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence and causes of ABO typing discrepancies among patients and analysis of the clinical characteristics as well.
A retrospective observational study was carried out in the Department of Laboratory Medicine in the General Hospital of Chinese PLA from March 2018 to December 2020. Records of patients were collected and analyzed for frequency, clinical characteristics, and influencing factors of ABO typing discrepancies.
There were 132 ABO typing discrepancies patients (57 females, 75 males), aged from 3 to 84 (50.3 ± 19.3) years, with history of operation 89 cases (67.42%) and blood transfusion 23 cases (17.42%). In the control group, there were 142 cases (63 females and 79 males), aged 10 – 78 years (50.5 ± 15.55), with operation history 68 cases (47.88%) and blood transfusion history 2 cases (1.40%). Among the inconsistent blood types group, there were 59 cases (44.7%) type B, 38 cases (28.8%) type A, 28 cases (21.2%) type AB, and 7 cases (5.3%) type O. There were 21 cases (15.9%) in the department of hematology, 15 cases (11.36%) in the department of orthopedics, 14 cases (10.6%) in the department of hepatobiliary surgery, 11 cases (8.33%) in the department of general surgery, 11 cases (8.33%) in the department of vascular surgery, and less than 5% in other departments. The common cause of ABO typing discrepancies was due to low/weak affinity antibody (3.79%), low/weak affinity antibody B (18.18%), weak A antigen (3.03%), weak B antigen (12.12%), hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (10.60%), irregular antibody (46.70%), subtype (3.79%), and cold agglutination (1.51%). The diseases in the ABO discrepancy group mainly included hematological disorders, malignant tumors, osteoarthritis and so on. Binary logistic regression showed that hematological disorders, malignant tumors, history of operation (p = 0.01), and history of blood transfusion (p = 0.017) were the influencing factors of ABO typing discrepancies.
It is possible that the antibody of ABO blood group system could not be detected. The independent influence factors were hematological disorders, malignant tumor, blood transfusion history and operation history for ABO typing discrepancies. It was necessary to analyze the causes correctly and judge the correct blood group by serological methods.