DDMS is a rare disease diagnosed by clinical and radiological characteristics. But the complexity of radiological and clinical manifestations of DDMS has become a challenge diagnostically. To date, the reported cases with DDMS had highly varied clinical manifestations including seizures, contralateral hemiplegia/hemiparesis, facial asymmetry, mental retardation, etc. In addition to typical clinical findings, some new characteristics have been recently added to the spectrum of DDMS. However, few cases have been reported to be associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms according to the literature. This study aimed to investigate the neuropsychiatric manifestations associated with Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome (DDMS) and related imaging findings.
This study included 7 patients diagnosed with DDMS between 2014 and 2020. The clinical characteristics, neuropsychiatric manifestations, and radiological results were retrospectively evaluated.
Seven patients (five males and two females) with a mean age of 28.0 ± 9.73 (range 15.0-41.0) years were included. Five patients were admitted to the psychiatric unit due to psychological and behavioral disorders. Two patients were referred to the neurology unit mainly due to epilepsy. Six patients had epileptic seizures, 4 had hemiplegia, 3 had mental retardation, 2 patients had external ear deformities, and 2 had facial asymmetry. Neuropsychiatric symptoms were presented in 6 (85.7 %) cases. Cases 2-6 developed affective disorders. Deficits in verbal communication, impairment of social interaction, lack of insight, adulia and hypobulia appeared in cases 1-4. Schizophrenia with apathy, and epileptic schizoid psychosis were observed in cases 4 and 5 respectively. Case 6 had behavioral disorders, hyperactivity, tic disorder, mental retardation, anxiety, catatonic symptoms and suicidal tendency. Case 7 had seizures and mental retardation, and no psychiatric symptoms were presented. Radiological examinations showed unilateral cerebral atrophy, enlarged lateral ventricles, and various compensatory hypertrophy of the skull in all cases. The midline structure has shifted to the affected side in 5(71.4 %) cases. Atrophy of the basal ganglia or brain stem was observed in 4(57.1 %) cases.
The hallmark imaging manifestations of DDMS facilitated the diagnosis in most cases. This study illustrated that a variety of psychoneurotic disorders and ear abnormalities were correlated with DDMS.