Retinoblastoma (RB) outcomes in Thailand are unfavorable compared to those of developed countries. This study aims to determine whether the clinical outcomes of patients with RB significantly improved after the implementation of new therapeutic approaches as well as which clinical factors affect survival and globe-saving outcomes.
The medical records of patients newly diagnosed with RB and treated at Siriraj Hospital between January 2005 and December 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical data, treatments, and outcomes were collected and analyzed.
In 194 eyes (144 patients), leukocoria was the most common presenting feature (76.8%); 129 (66.5%) eyes were staged in group E of the International Classification of Intraocular Retinoblastoma. Of the 149 enucleated eyes, 35 had high-risk histopathological features, mostly choroidal invasion; 45 eyes (23.2%) could be salvaged. The 5-year overall survival rate was 90.3%, an improvement compared to the previous study. The 5-year enucleation-free survival rates of Groups A and B, C, D and E were 100%, 83.1%, 36.7% and 16.6% respectively. Factors associated with a lower survival rate were interval from symptom onset to diagnosis >3 months (HR 5.8: 95% CI 1.637, 20.579) and buphthalmos (HR 12.57: 95% CI 3.936, 40.153). Factors associated with high-risk features were secondary glaucoma (HR 11.016: 95% CI 1.24, 98.10) and pseudohypopyon (HR 14.110: 95%CI 2.16, 92.05).
Survival rates and globe-saving rates appear to have improved; however, advanced stage presentation remain the major hindrance. Further studies with a larger cohort and longer follow-up are warranted.
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