Clinical and experimental studies have uncovered relevant clinical implications of clonal hematopoiesis. However, the true magnitude of this process, clonal dynamics over time and mechanisms of progression into overt malignancy remain to be largely elucidated. In this article, the consequences of clonal hematopoiesis, its significance in the context of cytopenia, and its implications in the clinical management of patients with myeloid malignancies are reviewed and discussed.
Clonal hematopoiesis has been associated with higher risk of hematologic cancers, as well as of death from cardiovascular causes. Clonal hematopoiesis has been proven clinically relevant in the context of disorders characterized by peripheral blood cytopenia, including aplastic anemia, hypoplastic myelodysplastic syndrome, cytopenia of undetermined significance, as well as unexplained anemia of the elderly.
. The available evidence has been proving the utility of somatic mutational analysis in patients with unexplained cytopenia, as well as in those receiving a diagnosis of myeloid neoplasm, enabling more accurate diagnosis, risk assessment, effective therapeutic strategies and residual disease monitoring. The access to a minimally invasive assessment is paving the way for screening programs of clonal hematopoiesis in individuals with absent or mild hematologic phenotype, as well as for therapeutic targeting of preleukemia cells.

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