Diagnosing real urinary obstruction and surgical decision making for the operative correction of urinary obstruction, are still problematic in congenital hydronephrosis (CH). Compliance of the renal pelvis is one of the important defense mechanisms of renal parenchyma against urinary obstruction. We observed early loss of function in some cases of CH with low and moderate anteroposterior diameter of the renal pelvis (APDRP).
To evaluate structural properties of the renal pelvic tissue of patients with CH and the relation of these structural properties with renal function and Anteroposterior diameter of the renal pelvis.
Ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) excised during UPJ obstruction operations from 2013 to 2019 were evaluated histopathologically. The patients were divided into the two groups according to initial renal function, i.e. group with initial preoperative differential renal function (DRF) less than 35% and group with initial DRF greater than 35%. The percentage of collagen to whole tissue area were analyzed using image processing program. The relationship between DRF and tissue collagen ratio, SFU and APDRP was evaluated.
There were 5 patients in the DRF 35% group. However, APDRP’s of the DRF 35% group. The collagen distribution in the muscle layer was more prominent in the DRF <35% group. Proportionally, percentage of collagen stained surface was significantly higher in DRF <35% group.
There are numerous histopathological studies evaluating the cause of UPJ obstruction. Besides these studies that are oriented to etiology, there are many studies comparing the histopathological changes at UPJ with surgical outcome and prognosis. In the present study, we found that renal pelvis collagen ratio was significantly increased in patients with lower APDRP and with severe renal function loss. This increase in the collagen content in the renal pelvis have been shown to affect the compliance negatively and decrease APDRP, which leads to a faster loss of renal function. Thus, pelvic structural changes accompanying UPJ obstruction may aggravate urinary obstructive process.
Increased renal pelvis collagen ratio negatively affects the expansion of the renal pelvis, which is one of the protective mechanisms of the renal parenchyma, and may be one of the triggering mechanisms of early loss of renal function.

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