Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is a type of central nervous system antibody-mediated disease which affects mainly optic nerves and spinal cord, but may also present with acute brainstem syndrome, acute diencephalic syndrome, and cerebral syndrome with typical brain lesions. One of the most disabling symptoms, diagnosed in 29%-67% of cases, is cognitive dysfunction, with such processes as memory, processing speed, executive function, attention, and verbal fluency being predominantly affected. However, description of cognition in NMOSD patients is still a relatively new area of research.
A systematic MEDLINE search was performed to retrieve all studies that investigated cognitive impairment and its clinical correlates in patients with NMOSD.
We summarize the current knowledge on cognitive impairment profile, neuropsychological tests used to examine NMOSD patients, clinical and demographical variables affecting cognition, and magnetic resonance imaging correlates. We provide a comparison of cognitive profile of patients with multiple sclerosis and NMOSD.
Patients with NMOSD are at significant risk of cognitive deficits. However, the knowledge of cognitive symptoms in NMOSD and potential modifying interventions is still scarce. Further accumulation of clinical data may facilitate effective therapeutic interventions.

© 2020 The Authors. Brain and Behavior published by Wiley Periodicals LLC.