To estimate the prevalence of symptoms of depression in the population, and to identify patient groups with a history of chronic conditions with the highest risks of comorbid depression.
Data were drawn from a population-representative sample of 31,447 participants in The Fifth Wave of the Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS5) conducted in 2014-15. Depressive symptoms were measured using the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale-Revised (CES-D-R 10) that measures symptoms defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM). Socio-demographic variables controlled for in the adjusted analysis included age, sex, education, and ethnicity.
Weighted prevalence of depressive symptoms, above the CES-D-R 10 cut-off, was 22.6% (females=23.0%, males=22.2%). Among those with a chronic condition, the highest risk of comorbid symptoms of depression was observed in those with a memory-related disease (OR=2.64 [1.49-4.68]) or stroke (OR=2.39 [1.75-3.27]). Depressive symptoms were also more commonly reported among people with hypertension, tuberculosis, asthma, other lung conditions, heart problems, liver diseases, arthritis or rheumatism, kidney diseases, stomach or digestive diseases.
Symptoms of depression are common in the general Indonesian population, and comorbidities are high in those with a history of chronic conditions, supporting the need for mental health care in patients presenting for physical diseases. Future research of clinical and patient samples will provide data in those who may be at increased risks.

Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier B.V.